Turkish Polıtıcs Dersi 3. Ünite Sorularla Öğrenelim

09.08.2022
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Political Parties And Elections

Açıköğretim ders notları öğrenciler tarafından ders çalışma esnasında hazırlanmakta olup diğer ders çalışacak öğrenciler için paylaşılmaktadır. Sizlerde hazırladığınız ders notlarını paylaşmak istiyorsanız bizlere iletebilirsiniz.

Açıköğretim derslerinden Turkish Polıtıcs Dersi 3. Ünite Sorularla Öğrenelim için hazırlanan  ders çalışma dokümanına (ders özeti / sorularla öğrenelim) aşağıdan erişebilirsiniz. AÖF Ders Notları ile sınavlara çok daha etkili bir şekilde çalışabilirsiniz. Sınavlarınızda başarılar dileriz.

Political Parties And Elections

1. Soru

What do you know about First Constitutional Era?

Cevap

First Constitutional Era, which would end in 1878, is a period in which political parties have not emerged yet and no idea of choice based on universal and equal voting in a real sense was present.


2. Soru

How would you explain The legacy of Second Constitutional Era?

Cevap

The legacy of Second Constitutional Era is a period where organised parties and competing emerged for the first time.


3. Soru

Who was Ahmet Rıza Bey? 

Cevap

Ahmet Rıza Bey was born in 1858 in İstanbul. He studied agriculture in Grignon France. While he was the director of Bursa Agricultural School, on a visit to an exhibition in 1889 he settled in Paris and from there he sent layihâ (report, opinion article) to Sultan Abdülhamid. Here, he became the head of the Paris branch of İTC and published Meşveret newspaper.


4. Soru

What were İTC strengths influenced by?

Cevap

It is a fact that İTC strengths were influenced by the nationalist ideas of the French Revolution. But these strengths were also members of a multinational empire and were aiming that the state should be kept together with considering all the elements.


5. Soru

What are the first opposition parties organized against the İTC? 

Cevap

The first opposition parties organized against the İTC are The Ottoman Liberals Party (Osmanlı Ahrar Fırkası-OAF) with liberal/conservative tendencies and  The Moderate Liberal Party (Mutedil Hürriyetperveran Fırkası-MHF). OAF is a party founded by the supporters of Prince Sabahaddin, based primarily on private enterprise and decentralization. The party was founded on 14 September 1908.  MHF, on the other hand, was a liberal party founded by some members of parliament in November 1909 and based on Ottomanism. 


6. Soru

What was the main opposition party of the Second Constitution Era?

Cevap

The main opposition party of the Second Constitution Era was the Party for Freedom and Harmony (Hürriyet ve İtilaf Fırkası-HİF) established on 21 November 1911. This movement, which gathered around 70 deputies in the Parliament, united all the opponents (liberals, Islamists, minorities) of İTC within its body.


7. Soru

When and how the first elections of the Second Constitutional Monarchy were held?

Cevap

The first elections of the Second Constitutional Monarchy were held in 1908. The elections were made in accordance with The Provisional Act on the Election of Deputies, which was prepared by the 1st Constitutional Monarchy Council, but became effective 30 years later, after approval of the Sultan Abdülhamid.


8. Soru

What sort of period was the 1920-1923 period of BMM?

Cevap

The 1920-1923 period of BMM is essentially a non-party assembly. Anatolia and Rumelia Defence of Rights Association was established in Sivas Congress, but forming political parties was decided to be discussed later after the National Struggle. Immediately after the opening of the Assembly, there were small groups operating within the Assembly.


9. Soru

Who was Hüseyin Avni ( Ulaş )?

Cevap

Hüseyin Avni (Ulaş), one of the founders of the Second Group, stated that he had a three-article program during the foundation of the Group. These articles were: (1) Ensuring national unity and independence within the framework of the National Pact; (2) Correction and improvement of existing laws on the basis of national sovereignty and (3) the immunity and dignity of everyone’s law. The main debates on the Second Group can be gathered at the following points (Demirel, 2012, pp. 48-62).


10. Soru

How would you define the concept ” Legislative Supremacy ” ?

Cevap

Legislative Supremacy: One of the most debated issues was the position of the Assembly. Opposing deputies were claiming that Heyet-i Vekile (The Delegation of the Executive Committee responsible for the executive, the executive body / the council of the ministers within the parliament system) whose Duties and responsibilities are not clearly and legally determined, was extorting the powers of the Parliament.


11. Soru

What are The Independence Tribunals?

Cevap

The Independence Tribunals are the extraordinary competent courts established on 11 September 1920 in order to solve the problem of increasing military desertion. The opponents decided that the Independence Courts should be expanded and some of their decisions, which they claim to be unlawful, have been criticized in Parliament.


12. Soru

When was the offer of the First Group to renew the elections?

Cevap

On 1 April 1923, the offer of the First Group to renew the elections was unanimously decided with the support of the Second Group and the Independent Group. The Second Group decided not to participate as a group and the end of the two-term election resulted in the absolute majority of the First Group candidates.


13. Soru

How can you analyse the CHF and the one-party Period?

Cevap

The analyses of CHF and the one-party Period reveal very different theses. The official interpretation ofCHF is that it cannot be seen as an ordinary authoritarian one-party. According to this interpretation, CHF is the only party that carries the goal of democracy and carries the aim of pluralism.


14. Soru

Which situation changed Mustafa Kemal’s and CHF’s attitude  towards the party?

Cevap

Given the task of filling the opposition gap, the SCF had provided a development that could be an alternative to the power.This situation changed MustafaKemal’s and CHF’s attitude towards the party, and after three months of function, the SCF trial ended. SCF trial played a decisive role in the transformation of the one party regime between 1931-35. 


15. Soru

What do you know about the 1924 Constitution? 

Cevap

The 1924 Constitution has not introduced a new electoral system, the two degree election method taken from the Second Constitutional Monarchy remained in force until the 1946 elections.


16. Soru

How would you explain the Democrat Party (Demokrat Parti-DP)?

Cevap

Democrat Party (Demokrat Parti-DP), which came  to power at 14 May 1950 elections, is not a party that gave direction to Turkish politics during its 10-year rule. DP is a party that goes beyond the period of its rule and continues its effects even after it was closed by the military coup on 27 May, 1960.


17. Soru

What is the list majority system?

Cevap

The list majority system is an election method that is far away from representation justice. Majority methods are mainly applied on the basis of the narrow region. The narrow zone refers to election of a deputy from each electoral district. Majority systems can be built on a simple or qualified majority. Majority systems requiring a qualified majority to be elected have two rounds;


18. Soru

How would you define The Homeland Front (Vatan Cephesi)?

Cevap

The Homeland Front (Vatan Cephesi) is an attempt to establish a political front founded by the DP against the cooperating  opposition after the 1957 elections, which has no legal characteristic. The practise was the radio broadcasting of the new joiners to the Homeland Front on the daily basis.


19. Soru

What is the essence of ‘27 May Regime’?

Cevap

The essence of ‘27 May Regime’ is the monitoring of the level of social demands taken to the politics. Constitutional institutions are the instruments of this control.


20. Soru

How  did the 1971 Memorandum result in? 

Cevap

The 1971 Memorandum resulted in a transformation in the CHP. Ecevit, who resigned from the position of Secretary General after 12 March, opposed to CHP’s view of the alliance between the CHP and the Army, stating that CHP should not accept to come to power in any way other than the people’s will.


1. Soru

What do you know about First Constitutional Era?

Cevap

First Constitutional Era, which would end in 1878, is a period in which political parties have not emerged yet and no idea of choice based on universal and equal voting in a real sense was present.

2. Soru

How would you explain The legacy of Second Constitutional Era?

Cevap

The legacy of Second Constitutional Era is a period where organised parties and competing emerged for the first time.

3. Soru

Who was Ahmet Rıza Bey? 

Cevap

Ahmet Rıza Bey was born in 1858 in İstanbul. He studied agriculture in Grignon France. While he was the director of Bursa Agricultural School, on a visit to an exhibition in 1889 he settled in Paris and from there he sent layihâ (report, opinion article) to Sultan Abdülhamid. Here, he became the head of the Paris branch of İTC and published Meşveret newspaper.

4. Soru

What were İTC strengths influenced by?

Cevap

It is a fact that İTC strengths were influenced by the nationalist ideas of the French Revolution. But these strengths were also members of a multinational empire and were aiming that the state should be kept together with considering all the elements.

5. Soru

What are the first opposition parties organized against the İTC? 

Cevap

The first opposition parties organized against the İTC are The Ottoman Liberals Party (Osmanlı Ahrar Fırkası-OAF) with liberal/conservative tendencies and  The Moderate Liberal Party (Mutedil Hürriyetperveran Fırkası-MHF). OAF is a party founded by the supporters of Prince Sabahaddin, based primarily on private enterprise and decentralization. The party was founded on 14 September 1908.  MHF, on the other hand, was a liberal party founded by some members of parliament in November 1909 and based on Ottomanism. 

6. Soru

What was the main opposition party of the Second Constitution Era?

Cevap

The main opposition party of the Second Constitution Era was the Party for Freedom and Harmony (Hürriyet ve İtilaf Fırkası-HİF) established on 21 November 1911. This movement, which gathered around 70 deputies in the Parliament, united all the opponents (liberals, Islamists, minorities) of İTC within its body.

7. Soru

When and how the first elections of the Second Constitutional Monarchy were held?

Cevap

The first elections of the Second Constitutional Monarchy were held in 1908. The elections were made in accordance with The Provisional Act on the Election of Deputies, which was prepared by the 1st Constitutional Monarchy Council, but became effective 30 years later, after approval of the Sultan Abdülhamid.

8. Soru

What sort of period was the 1920-1923 period of BMM?

Cevap

The 1920-1923 period of BMM is essentially a non-party assembly. Anatolia and Rumelia Defence of Rights Association was established in Sivas Congress, but forming political parties was decided to be discussed later after the National Struggle. Immediately after the opening of the Assembly, there were small groups operating within the Assembly.

9. Soru

Who was Hüseyin Avni ( Ulaş )?

Cevap

Hüseyin Avni (Ulaş), one of the founders of the Second Group, stated that he had a three-article program during the foundation of the Group. These articles were: (1) Ensuring national unity and independence within the framework of the National Pact; (2) Correction and improvement of existing laws on the basis of national sovereignty and (3) the immunity and dignity of everyone’s law. The main debates on the Second Group can be gathered at the following points (Demirel, 2012, pp. 48-62).

10. Soru

How would you define the concept ” Legislative Supremacy ” ?

Cevap

Legislative Supremacy: One of the most debated issues was the position of the Assembly. Opposing deputies were claiming that Heyet-i Vekile (The Delegation of the Executive Committee responsible for the executive, the executive body / the council of the ministers within the parliament system) whose Duties and responsibilities are not clearly and legally determined, was extorting the powers of the Parliament.

11. Soru

What are The Independence Tribunals?

Cevap

The Independence Tribunals are the extraordinary competent courts established on 11 September 1920 in order to solve the problem of increasing military desertion. The opponents decided that the Independence Courts should be expanded and some of their decisions, which they claim to be unlawful, have been criticized in Parliament.

12. Soru

When was the offer of the First Group to renew the elections?

Cevap

On 1 April 1923, the offer of the First Group to renew the elections was unanimously decided with the support of the Second Group and the Independent Group. The Second Group decided not to participate as a group and the end of the two-term election resulted in the absolute majority of the First Group candidates.

13. Soru

How can you analyse the CHF and the one-party Period?

Cevap

The analyses of CHF and the one-party Period reveal very different theses. The official interpretation ofCHF is that it cannot be seen as an ordinary authoritarian one-party. According to this interpretation, CHF is the only party that carries the goal of democracy and carries the aim of pluralism.

14. Soru

Which situation changed Mustafa Kemal’s and CHF’s attitude  towards the party?

Cevap

Given the task of filling the opposition gap, the SCF had provided a development that could be an alternative to the power.This situation changed MustafaKemal’s and CHF’s attitude towards the party, and after three months of function, the SCF trial ended. SCF trial played a decisive role in the transformation of the one party regime between 1931-35. 

15. Soru

What do you know about the 1924 Constitution? 

Cevap

The 1924 Constitution has not introduced a new electoral system, the two degree election method taken from the Second Constitutional Monarchy remained in force until the 1946 elections.

16. Soru

How would you explain the Democrat Party (Demokrat Parti-DP)?

Cevap

Democrat Party (Demokrat Parti-DP), which came  to power at 14 May 1950 elections, is not a party that gave direction to Turkish politics during its 10-year rule. DP is a party that goes beyond the period of its rule and continues its effects even after it was closed by the military coup on 27 May, 1960.

17. Soru

What is the list majority system?

Cevap

The list majority system is an election method that is far away from representation justice. Majority methods are mainly applied on the basis of the narrow region. The narrow zone refers to election of a deputy from each electoral district. Majority systems can be built on a simple or qualified majority. Majority systems requiring a qualified majority to be elected have two rounds;

18. Soru

How would you define The Homeland Front (Vatan Cephesi)?

Cevap

The Homeland Front (Vatan Cephesi) is an attempt to establish a political front founded by the DP against the cooperating  opposition after the 1957 elections, which has no legal characteristic. The practise was the radio broadcasting of the new joiners to the Homeland Front on the daily basis.

19. Soru

What is the essence of ‘27 May Regime’?

Cevap

The essence of ‘27 May Regime’ is the monitoring of the level of social demands taken to the politics. Constitutional institutions are the instruments of this control.

20. Soru

How  did the 1971 Memorandum result in? 

Cevap

The 1971 Memorandum resulted in a transformation in the CHP. Ecevit, who resigned from the position of Secretary General after 12 March, opposed to CHP’s view of the alliance between the CHP and the Army, stating that CHP should not accept to come to power in any way other than the people’s will.

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