Turkish Polıtıcs Dersi 1. Ünite Sorularla Öğrenelim

09.08.2022
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Some Prefatory Notes On Turkish Political Life

Açıköğretim ders notları öğrenciler tarafından ders çalışma esnasında hazırlanmakta olup diğer ders çalışacak öğrenciler için paylaşılmaktadır. Sizlerde hazırladığınız ders notlarını paylaşmak istiyorsanız bizlere iletebilirsiniz.

Açıköğretim derslerinden Turkish Polıtıcs Dersi 1. Ünite Sorularla Öğrenelim için hazırlanan  ders çalışma dokümanına (ders özeti / sorularla öğrenelim) aşağıdan erişebilirsiniz. AÖF Ders Notları ile sınavlara çok daha etkili bir şekilde çalışabilirsiniz. Sınavlarınızda başarılar dileriz.

Some Prefatory Notes On Turkish Political Life

1. Soru

When talking about politics what should be taken into account?

Cevap

Politics is the name of the social institution, but an important and functional institution in the reproduction of society. It fills a place within social totality together with other social instutitons, either determining them or determined by them, but in the last instance, it is politics that decides the outcome whether it is a question of religiosity,
of economy, and of social. Every politics includes a value-laden act. Politics in action means subjects, for politics is actualized through subjects, to put it boldly, politics in action requires subjects, who are politically motivated individuals, groups, strata
and classes, and hence become “political subjects.”


2. Soru

What is subjectivization?

Cevap

Subjectivization is a process the subject becomes itself, but the moment subject accepts itself as it is, an objective crack appears between subject and its representation.


3. Soru

What is the significance of Kulturkampf in the history?

Cevap

Kulturkampf (“cultural war or struggle”) is a specific term that indicates a specific period (1871-1887) in German history where state tried to gain dominance over church in daily life, especially in marriage and contract issues. The appearance was illusionary; this was not a conflict between “Protestant State” and “Catholic Church” but about who was going to decide even on tiniest trivial matters in daily life, and that political power,
a central authority is executive on every issue in What social life without exemption.


4. Soru

Why is culture important to understand Turkish politics?

Cevap

The cultural struggles are important aspects of Turkish political life since the political is always mediated through cultural and ideological practices, and in return, it mediates them.


5. Soru

What is the role of history in understanding politics?

Cevap

History makes society, gives its uniqueness, and in that sense, only particular historicities differ societies from each other, and then later every society becomes a part of universal history according to its share in the ruling dynamic of historical development. History, moreover, is a persistent background to everything that happens
within a society. In this sense, Joyce was right: no escape is possible from history, and thus in this sense history becomes fate.


6. Soru

What were the three modern ideologies employed by Ottoman Empire to save itself?

Cevap

Islamism, Nationalism and Ottomanism, as Yusuf Akçura had formulated, were three modern ideologies that were employed by both state and intelligentsia to save the Ottoman Empire, which was,
then rapidly declining


7. Soru

What changes happened in terms of ideologies after 1960 Coup in Turkey?

Cevap

Socialism especially after 1960 Coup, was rapidly progressing. Socialism was mostly a combination of narodnik populism and an economic program of independent development.


8. Soru

What is Narodnik? How did it start?

Cevap

Narodnik, (Russian: “Populist”), member of a 19th century socialist movement in Russia who believed
that political propaganda among the peasantry would lead to the awakening of the masses and,
through their influence, to the liberalization of the tsarist regime. Because Russia was a predominantly
agricultural country, the peasants represented the majority of the people (narod): hence the name
of the movement, narodnichestvo, or “populism”.


9. Soru

What are the organizations that help Turkey’s quest for Westernization?

Cevap

The People’s Houses, The Village Institutes and The Imam-Hatip Schools are three different
cultural-social and educational organizations through which Turkey’s quest for Westernization
and the reaction to it, can be examined.


10. Soru

What were the goals of the People’s House, the Village Institutes and the İmam-Hatip Schools?

Cevap

The People’s House was home for secular, urbanite citizen, The Village Institutes was there to create the
enlightening/enlightened pioneer for rural people, The İmam-Hatip Schools aimed to form a religious,
pious person to save the tradition and religious sentiment against destructive outcomes of westernization. The formation of individuality from above through state and its apparatuses was the common theme for these three examples, but they also indicate how Turkish process of modernization advanced in different dimensions in the guidance of state.


11. Soru

Why is it important to take military elite into consideration when understanding Turkish politics?

Cevap

Power elite and its formation in Turkey cannot be examined properly without taking military elite into consideration, and not only short-term political upheavels, but also long-terms political trends and inclinations have been strongly influenced by capitalistic market, it is a necessity to look into economy as a dark horse in the political conglomerations.


12. Soru

Why is army involvement in ruling understandable in Turkey?

Cevap

rural and poor masses was provided by army during the founding act. Later interventions in politics by the army is thus somehow “understandable”, and as result of that, it is not surprising the soldier-nation myth developed by Turkish nationalism has contributed to the normalization of the army involvements at
any level.


13. Soru

What justified the army and its attempts to take over the control of ruling in Turkey?

Cevap

The weakness of Turkish political structure, lack of a strong civil society, flaws in political culture that underestimate politics and politicians in things they do, justified the army and its actions at large.


14. Soru

How many attempted and successful coups are there in Turkish history?

Cevap

The Turkish Army directly intervened and changed the structure of political power in 1960, 1971, 1980, 1997, 2007 and 2016, the last two (2007 and 2016) were not “successful.”


15. Soru

What is praetorianism?

Cevap

Praetorianism: The control of a society by force or fraud, especially when exercised through titular
officials and by a powerful minority.


16. Soru

What can be said about Turkish politics and economy in the early 70’s and 80’s?

Cevap

It is clear that in the early 70’s and 80’s there were teroristic actions by both left and right, the
economic conditions were bad, high inflations made prices untouchable, public administration
was chaotic, the parliament was too soft to take any decision, but both coups did not produce any
positive outcome either economically or politically.


17. Soru

What are three different approaches to the interrelation between economy and politics?

Cevap

Every student who is “lucky” enough to have a mighty teacher will begin to learn that it is economy
which rules, not politics, so instead of involving in silly and petit political games, one needs to have a
look at “big economic picture.” This seems to be a strong and correct argumentation, indeed it is,
but partly. There is an undeniable relation between politics and economy, and there are endless
debates on what comes first in the last instance, to use Althusserian concept. The third option
which envisages the mutuality in relation between politics and economy does not solve any problem
nor it gives an adequate explanation.


18. Soru

What can be said about the first reaction of Turkey to the Capitalism?

Cevap

The capitalist development in Turkey was a slow process. The early Republic was based on peasantry,
which had been in a backward position then. The Marshall Plan was used to mobilise peasantry
after World War II. Menderes’s Democrat Party contributed to the petit production networks. The
growth of Turkish bourgeoisie and working class gained momentum after 1960. But overall, state was
the main source of wealth, and controlling force over financial and productive markets.


19. Soru

What kind of tension in terms of economy can be meantioned in 80′ and 90’s of Turkey?

Cevap

Throughout 80’s and 90’s the main economic tension between state and bourgeoisie was not limited to the ownership of productive activity, because the volume of production was not enought to build their corresponding spheres, so they acted accordingly, and restrained each other.


20. Soru

What can be said about the future of Turkish politics?

Cevap

The privatization of public economic enterprises, elimination of unions, gentrification, enormous growth of construction industry pictures a scene in which the future of Turkish politics lies.


1. Soru

When talking about politics what should be taken into account?

Cevap

Politics is the name of the social institution, but an important and functional institution in the reproduction of society. It fills a place within social totality together with other social instutitons, either determining them or determined by them, but in the last instance, it is politics that decides the outcome whether it is a question of religiosity,
of economy, and of social. Every politics includes a value-laden act. Politics in action means subjects, for politics is actualized through subjects, to put it boldly, politics in action requires subjects, who are politically motivated individuals, groups, strata
and classes, and hence become “political subjects.”

2. Soru

What is subjectivization?

Cevap

Subjectivization is a process the subject becomes itself, but the moment subject accepts itself as it is, an objective crack appears between subject and its representation.

3. Soru

What is the significance of Kulturkampf in the history?

Cevap

Kulturkampf (“cultural war or struggle”) is a specific term that indicates a specific period (1871-1887) in German history where state tried to gain dominance over church in daily life, especially in marriage and contract issues. The appearance was illusionary; this was not a conflict between “Protestant State” and “Catholic Church” but about who was going to decide even on tiniest trivial matters in daily life, and that political power,
a central authority is executive on every issue in What social life without exemption.

4. Soru

Why is culture important to understand Turkish politics?

Cevap

The cultural struggles are important aspects of Turkish political life since the political is always mediated through cultural and ideological practices, and in return, it mediates them.

5. Soru

What is the role of history in understanding politics?

Cevap

History makes society, gives its uniqueness, and in that sense, only particular historicities differ societies from each other, and then later every society becomes a part of universal history according to its share in the ruling dynamic of historical development. History, moreover, is a persistent background to everything that happens
within a society. In this sense, Joyce was right: no escape is possible from history, and thus in this sense history becomes fate.

6. Soru

What were the three modern ideologies employed by Ottoman Empire to save itself?

Cevap

Islamism, Nationalism and Ottomanism, as Yusuf Akçura had formulated, were three modern ideologies that were employed by both state and intelligentsia to save the Ottoman Empire, which was,
then rapidly declining

7. Soru

What changes happened in terms of ideologies after 1960 Coup in Turkey?

Cevap

Socialism especially after 1960 Coup, was rapidly progressing. Socialism was mostly a combination of narodnik populism and an economic program of independent development.

8. Soru

What is Narodnik? How did it start?

Cevap

Narodnik, (Russian: “Populist”), member of a 19th century socialist movement in Russia who believed
that political propaganda among the peasantry would lead to the awakening of the masses and,
through their influence, to the liberalization of the tsarist regime. Because Russia was a predominantly
agricultural country, the peasants represented the majority of the people (narod): hence the name
of the movement, narodnichestvo, or “populism”.

9. Soru

What are the organizations that help Turkey’s quest for Westernization?

Cevap

The People’s Houses, The Village Institutes and The Imam-Hatip Schools are three different
cultural-social and educational organizations through which Turkey’s quest for Westernization
and the reaction to it, can be examined.

10. Soru

What were the goals of the People’s House, the Village Institutes and the İmam-Hatip Schools?

Cevap

The People’s House was home for secular, urbanite citizen, The Village Institutes was there to create the
enlightening/enlightened pioneer for rural people, The İmam-Hatip Schools aimed to form a religious,
pious person to save the tradition and religious sentiment against destructive outcomes of westernization. The formation of individuality from above through state and its apparatuses was the common theme for these three examples, but they also indicate how Turkish process of modernization advanced in different dimensions in the guidance of state.

11. Soru

Why is it important to take military elite into consideration when understanding Turkish politics?

Cevap

Power elite and its formation in Turkey cannot be examined properly without taking military elite into consideration, and not only short-term political upheavels, but also long-terms political trends and inclinations have been strongly influenced by capitalistic market, it is a necessity to look into economy as a dark horse in the political conglomerations.

12. Soru

Why is army involvement in ruling understandable in Turkey?

Cevap

rural and poor masses was provided by army during the founding act. Later interventions in politics by the army is thus somehow “understandable”, and as result of that, it is not surprising the soldier-nation myth developed by Turkish nationalism has contributed to the normalization of the army involvements at
any level.

13. Soru

What justified the army and its attempts to take over the control of ruling in Turkey?

Cevap

The weakness of Turkish political structure, lack of a strong civil society, flaws in political culture that underestimate politics and politicians in things they do, justified the army and its actions at large.

14. Soru

How many attempted and successful coups are there in Turkish history?

Cevap

The Turkish Army directly intervened and changed the structure of political power in 1960, 1971, 1980, 1997, 2007 and 2016, the last two (2007 and 2016) were not “successful.”

15. Soru

What is praetorianism?

Cevap

Praetorianism: The control of a society by force or fraud, especially when exercised through titular
officials and by a powerful minority.

16. Soru

What can be said about Turkish politics and economy in the early 70’s and 80’s?

Cevap

It is clear that in the early 70’s and 80’s there were teroristic actions by both left and right, the
economic conditions were bad, high inflations made prices untouchable, public administration
was chaotic, the parliament was too soft to take any decision, but both coups did not produce any
positive outcome either economically or politically.

17. Soru

What are three different approaches to the interrelation between economy and politics?

Cevap

Every student who is “lucky” enough to have a mighty teacher will begin to learn that it is economy
which rules, not politics, so instead of involving in silly and petit political games, one needs to have a
look at “big economic picture.” This seems to be a strong and correct argumentation, indeed it is,
but partly. There is an undeniable relation between politics and economy, and there are endless
debates on what comes first in the last instance, to use Althusserian concept. The third option
which envisages the mutuality in relation between politics and economy does not solve any problem
nor it gives an adequate explanation.

18. Soru

What can be said about the first reaction of Turkey to the Capitalism?

Cevap

The capitalist development in Turkey was a slow process. The early Republic was based on peasantry,
which had been in a backward position then. The Marshall Plan was used to mobilise peasantry
after World War II. Menderes’s Democrat Party contributed to the petit production networks. The
growth of Turkish bourgeoisie and working class gained momentum after 1960. But overall, state was
the main source of wealth, and controlling force over financial and productive markets.

19. Soru

What kind of tension in terms of economy can be meantioned in 80′ and 90’s of Turkey?

Cevap

Throughout 80’s and 90’s the main economic tension between state and bourgeoisie was not limited to the ownership of productive activity, because the volume of production was not enought to build their corresponding spheres, so they acted accordingly, and restrained each other.

20. Soru

What can be said about the future of Turkish politics?

Cevap

The privatization of public economic enterprises, elimination of unions, gentrification, enormous growth of construction industry pictures a scene in which the future of Turkish politics lies.

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