Turkish Polıtıcs Dersi 4. Ünite Sorularla Öğrenelim

09.08.2022
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Political Ideologies İn Turkish Political Life

Açıköğretim ders notları öğrenciler tarafından ders çalışma esnasında hazırlanmakta olup diğer ders çalışacak öğrenciler için paylaşılmaktadır. Sizlerde hazırladığınız ders notlarını paylaşmak istiyorsanız bizlere iletebilirsiniz.

Açıköğretim derslerinden Turkish Polıtıcs Dersi 4. Ünite Sorularla Öğrenelim için hazırlanan  ders çalışma dokümanına (ders özeti / sorularla öğrenelim) aşağıdan erişebilirsiniz. AÖF Ders Notları ile sınavlara çok daha etkili bir şekilde çalışabilirsiniz. Sınavlarınızda başarılar dileriz.

Political Ideologies İn Turkish Political Life

1. Soru

What problems has transferring ideologies to Turkey led to in the West?

Cevap

Transferring ideologies to Turkey has led to some problems not experienced in the West. Western societies have modernized in sociological sense, whereas the elements of traditional structure have maintained their existence in modernizing countries such as Turkey at the social and political levels.


2. Soru

What is the official ideology?

Cevap

The official ideology is a collection of mostly loose, pragmatic, irrational, eclectic, and systematic values that the elites and classes with the power to hold or influence state power employ in order to legitimize the state apparatus and themselves, to reproduce their beings, to enforce obedience.


3. Soru

What is the main aim of the Ottomanist movement ?

Cevap

The main aim of the Ottomanist movement based on the Ottoman nation is to ensure the unity of the state by giving common rights to the groups with different races, languages and religions within the Ottoman Empire and to prevent the demands and actions of independence.


4. Soru

What is one of the most important elements of the modernization project carried out by the Republican regime? 

Cevap

One of the most important elements of the modernization project carried out by the Republican regime is the principle of Kemalist statism. Statism is reflected both in the economic policies of the republican period and in other practices of politicallife. Statism is primarily associated with economic development. 


5. Soru

What do you know about nationalism?

Cevap

Nationalism is one of the most powerful and widespread ideologies that the modern age has created. It has a more central place in the lives of modern societies and states than other ideologies. Nationalism as an ideology and as a phenomenon is closely related to the concepts of ‘nation’, ‘nation-state’ and ‘national identity’. 


6. Soru

Why has the western kind of social democracy not come into existence in Turkey?

Cevap

Despite all efforts, western kind of social democracy did not come into existence in Turkey. It is difficult to say that this only emerged from a conjunctural cause. In fact there are serious ideological and structural reasons, mainly Kemalism, six arrows, nationalism and militarism.


7. Soru

How would you define Conservatism?

Cevap

Conservatism as ‘political attitude’ seems in various periods of history and other political ideologies. But conservatism as ‘political thought’ emerged in the modern period on the basis of the response to the philosophy of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution.


8. Soru

What do you know about the spread of feminism in Turkey? 

Cevap

The spread of feminism in Turkey has taken place after the 1990s. In this period many women’s associations were established and the topic of women began to appear in academy. In many universities women’s research centers, institutes,
master sciences and postgraduate programs have been opened. In 2000s, the number of women’s organizations has continued to increase and various regulations were made in favor of women in the legal field.


9. Soru

What is nation?

Cevap

Nation is a collection of people bound together by shared values and traditions, a common language, religion and history, and usually occupying the same geographical area (Heywood, pp. 173-176).


10. Soru

How would you define the concept social democracy?

Cevap

Social democracy is a moderate or reformist brand of socialism that favors a balance between the market and the state, rather than the abolition of capitalism (Heywood, p. 99).


11. Soru

What do you know about Left-Socialist Nationalism?

Cevap

One of the most controversial issues among those who adopt the left or socialist worldview is nationalism. It is a problem whether the left-wing socialists can be nationalist or not. If the answer is positive, then the problem is what is what kind of nationalist they are. The debate emerges in the context of the question of how will the system be  transformed into socialism in the countries where capitalism does not develop, class conflicts do not arise and the struggle against colonial governments continues.


12. Soru

What do you know about Liberal Thinking?

Cevap

Liberal Thinking is undoubtedly the most important one among the movements of liberal thought in Turkey. Established in 1992 under the leadership of Kazım Berzeg, Atilla Yayla and Mustafa Erdoğan, association adopts liberalism as a system of thought and makes activities in the intellectual sphere.


13. Soru

What is Individualism?

Cevap

Individualism is a  belief in the central importance of the human individuals as opposed to social groups or collective bodies (Heywood, p. 28).


14. Soru

How many main themes are there  that remain unchanged among the followers of (Milli Demokratik Devrim) MDD in the broad sense of the Turkish left?

Cevap

There are four main themes that remain unchanged among the followers of (Milli Demokratik Devrim) MDD in the broad sense of the Turkish left: nationalism, developmentalism, Kemalism and the search for our own unique path.


15. Soru

How do you explain the main transformation from the Ottoman to the Republic? 

Cevap

The main transformation from the Ottoman to the Republic is that a multi lingual, multi-religious and multi-ethnic imperial system shifted to a nation-state based on Turkish identity.


16. Soru

What is the ‘Kemalist modernization’ project?

Cevap

The ‘Kemalist modernization’ project seeks to apply the revolutions with an understanding that traditional society needs to be elevated to an advanced situation, especially with the reference to the principles of the French Enlightenment, with a positivist progressive perspective.


17. Soru

What do you know about Islamism?

Cevap

Islamism is an intellectual movement and modern political ideology that emerged in the Muslim world in the first quarter of the 19th century. This ideology has emerged as a reaction against the weakness of Muslims in the face of the West and colonizing them.


18. Soru

What are the differences between the ‘National Democratic Revolution’ and the socialist revolution strategy in 1960s?

Cevap

TİP’s socialist revolution strategy was created against the National Democratic Revolution (Milli Demokratik Devrim-MDD) movement.  National Democratic Revolution advocates emphasized relationships and circumstances peculiar to Turkey. They opposed the socialist revolution strategy and suggested a specific way to Turkey.


19. Soru

What is the difference between Jihad and Ijtihad?

Cevap

Jihad is an Islamic term literally meaning ‘struggle’; includes the struggle against one’s own soul (greater jihad) and external, physical effort or even ‘holy war’ (lesser jihad) (Heywood, p. 295). On the other hand  Ijtihad is the interpretation of the fundamental sources of Islam by Muslim scholars.


20. Soru

How would you define liberalism?

Cevap

Liberalism, which is a kind of freedom theory, was born as a reaction to the old system in which various parts of the state and society could intervene in the rights and freedoms of the individual. While the left and socialism emphasize equality, liberalism emphasizes freedom. Liberalism is not just an economic doctrine; it is a multi-faceted ideology advocating certain basic views on the social and political sphere. 


21. Soru

How would you explain feminism?

Cevap

Feminist thought has an important characteristic that distinguishes it from other political ideologies. Feminism asserts that all other political ideologies in some way legitimize gender inequalities and carries patriarchy.


22. Soru

What sort of meaning do the concepts of feminism and feminist carry?

Cevap

The concepts of feminism and feminist do not carry very positive meanings in Turkish social and political thought. However, in spite of this negative meaning, women’s movement in Turkey has a historical background dating back to the
Ottoman Empire.


23. Soru

What is the second stage of the feminist movement in Turkey?

Cevap

The second stage of the feminist movement in Turkey is the Republican period. For the modernization project of the Republic whose basic aim is to form a modern and secular Turkish woman, the liberation of women and the progress of the nation will coexist together. For this reason, legal regulations on women’s status and rights have been made.


1. Soru

What problems has transferring ideologies to Turkey led to in the West?

Cevap

Transferring ideologies to Turkey has led to some problems not experienced in the West. Western societies have modernized in sociological sense, whereas the elements of traditional structure have maintained their existence in modernizing countries such as Turkey at the social and political levels.

2. Soru

What is the official ideology?

Cevap

The official ideology is a collection of mostly loose, pragmatic, irrational, eclectic, and systematic values that the elites and classes with the power to hold or influence state power employ in order to legitimize the state apparatus and themselves, to reproduce their beings, to enforce obedience.

3. Soru

What is the main aim of the Ottomanist movement ?

Cevap

The main aim of the Ottomanist movement based on the Ottoman nation is to ensure the unity of the state by giving common rights to the groups with different races, languages and religions within the Ottoman Empire and to prevent the demands and actions of independence.

4. Soru

What is one of the most important elements of the modernization project carried out by the Republican regime? 

Cevap

One of the most important elements of the modernization project carried out by the Republican regime is the principle of Kemalist statism. Statism is reflected both in the economic policies of the republican period and in other practices of politicallife. Statism is primarily associated with economic development. 

5. Soru

What do you know about nationalism?

Cevap

Nationalism is one of the most powerful and widespread ideologies that the modern age has created. It has a more central place in the lives of modern societies and states than other ideologies. Nationalism as an ideology and as a phenomenon is closely related to the concepts of ‘nation’, ‘nation-state’ and ‘national identity’. 

6. Soru

Why has the western kind of social democracy not come into existence in Turkey?

Cevap

Despite all efforts, western kind of social democracy did not come into existence in Turkey. It is difficult to say that this only emerged from a conjunctural cause. In fact there are serious ideological and structural reasons, mainly Kemalism, six arrows, nationalism and militarism.

7. Soru

How would you define Conservatism?

Cevap

Conservatism as ‘political attitude’ seems in various periods of history and other political ideologies. But conservatism as ‘political thought’ emerged in the modern period on the basis of the response to the philosophy of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution.

8. Soru

What do you know about the spread of feminism in Turkey? 

Cevap

The spread of feminism in Turkey has taken place after the 1990s. In this period many women’s associations were established and the topic of women began to appear in academy. In many universities women’s research centers, institutes,
master sciences and postgraduate programs have been opened. In 2000s, the number of women’s organizations has continued to increase and various regulations were made in favor of women in the legal field.

9. Soru

What is nation?

Cevap

Nation is a collection of people bound together by shared values and traditions, a common language, religion and history, and usually occupying the same geographical area (Heywood, pp. 173-176).

10. Soru

How would you define the concept social democracy?

Cevap

Social democracy is a moderate or reformist brand of socialism that favors a balance between the market and the state, rather than the abolition of capitalism (Heywood, p. 99).

11. Soru

What do you know about Left-Socialist Nationalism?

Cevap

One of the most controversial issues among those who adopt the left or socialist worldview is nationalism. It is a problem whether the left-wing socialists can be nationalist or not. If the answer is positive, then the problem is what is what kind of nationalist they are. The debate emerges in the context of the question of how will the system be  transformed into socialism in the countries where capitalism does not develop, class conflicts do not arise and the struggle against colonial governments continues.

12. Soru

What do you know about Liberal Thinking?

Cevap

Liberal Thinking is undoubtedly the most important one among the movements of liberal thought in Turkey. Established in 1992 under the leadership of Kazım Berzeg, Atilla Yayla and Mustafa Erdoğan, association adopts liberalism as a system of thought and makes activities in the intellectual sphere.

13. Soru

What is Individualism?

Cevap

Individualism is a  belief in the central importance of the human individuals as opposed to social groups or collective bodies (Heywood, p. 28).

14. Soru

How many main themes are there  that remain unchanged among the followers of (Milli Demokratik Devrim) MDD in the broad sense of the Turkish left?

Cevap

There are four main themes that remain unchanged among the followers of (Milli Demokratik Devrim) MDD in the broad sense of the Turkish left: nationalism, developmentalism, Kemalism and the search for our own unique path.

15. Soru

How do you explain the main transformation from the Ottoman to the Republic? 

Cevap

The main transformation from the Ottoman to the Republic is that a multi lingual, multi-religious and multi-ethnic imperial system shifted to a nation-state based on Turkish identity.

16. Soru

What is the ‘Kemalist modernization’ project?

Cevap

The ‘Kemalist modernization’ project seeks to apply the revolutions with an understanding that traditional society needs to be elevated to an advanced situation, especially with the reference to the principles of the French Enlightenment, with a positivist progressive perspective.

17. Soru

What do you know about Islamism?

Cevap

Islamism is an intellectual movement and modern political ideology that emerged in the Muslim world in the first quarter of the 19th century. This ideology has emerged as a reaction against the weakness of Muslims in the face of the West and colonizing them.

18. Soru

What are the differences between the ‘National Democratic Revolution’ and the socialist revolution strategy in 1960s?

Cevap

TİP’s socialist revolution strategy was created against the National Democratic Revolution (Milli Demokratik Devrim-MDD) movement.  National Democratic Revolution advocates emphasized relationships and circumstances peculiar to Turkey. They opposed the socialist revolution strategy and suggested a specific way to Turkey.

19. Soru

What is the difference between Jihad and Ijtihad?

Cevap

Jihad is an Islamic term literally meaning ‘struggle’; includes the struggle against one’s own soul (greater jihad) and external, physical effort or even ‘holy war’ (lesser jihad) (Heywood, p. 295). On the other hand  Ijtihad is the interpretation of the fundamental sources of Islam by Muslim scholars.

20. Soru

How would you define liberalism?

Cevap

Liberalism, which is a kind of freedom theory, was born as a reaction to the old system in which various parts of the state and society could intervene in the rights and freedoms of the individual. While the left and socialism emphasize equality, liberalism emphasizes freedom. Liberalism is not just an economic doctrine; it is a multi-faceted ideology advocating certain basic views on the social and political sphere. 

21. Soru

How would you explain feminism?

Cevap

Feminist thought has an important characteristic that distinguishes it from other political ideologies. Feminism asserts that all other political ideologies in some way legitimize gender inequalities and carries patriarchy.

22. Soru

What sort of meaning do the concepts of feminism and feminist carry?

Cevap

The concepts of feminism and feminist do not carry very positive meanings in Turkish social and political thought. However, in spite of this negative meaning, women’s movement in Turkey has a historical background dating back to the
Ottoman Empire.

23. Soru

What is the second stage of the feminist movement in Turkey?

Cevap

The second stage of the feminist movement in Turkey is the Republican period. For the modernization project of the Republic whose basic aim is to form a modern and secular Turkish woman, the liberation of women and the progress of the nation will coexist together. For this reason, legal regulations on women’s status and rights have been made.

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